Papio cynocaphalus cynocephalus
Shoulder height 50–75cm. Weight 25–45kg.
This powerful terrestrial primate, distinguished from any other monkey by its much larger size, inverted 'U'-shaped tail and distinctive dog-like head, is fascinating to watch from a behavioural perspective. It lives in large troops that boast a complex, rigid social structure characterised by a matriarchal lineage and plenty of inter-troop movement by males seeking social dominance. Omnivorous and at home in almost any habitat, the baboon is the most widespread primate in Africa, frequently seen in most game reserves. With their highly organised defence system, the only predators that seriously affect baboons are leopard, which will try to pick them off at night, whilst they are roosting in trees.
There are three African races, regarded by some authorities as full species. The chacma baboon (P. c. ursinus
) is grey and confined largely to areas south of the Zambezi. The yellow baboon (P. c. cynocephalus
) is the yellow-brown race occurring in Zambia, northern Mozambique, Malawi, southern and eastern Tanzania and eastern Kenya. The olive or anubis baboon (P. c. anubis
) is a hairy green-to-brown baboon found in Ethiopia, Uganda, northern Tanzania and Kenya.